The Role Of Material Resources In Students’ Academic Performance
Education is regarded as the greatest agency for human development; it is for this reason that many countries in the world spend a lot of time and money to provide adequate education to their citizens. Education is the deliberate and systematic influence extended by the mature person upon the immature through instruction, discipline and harmonious development of physical, intellectual, aesthetic, social and spiritual powers of the human beings, according to their essential hierarchy for the individual and social uses which is directed towards the union of the educated with the creator at the final end.
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Education in Nigeria is an instrument “par excellence” for effecting national development; it has witnessed active participation by non governmental agencies, communities, and individuals as well as government interventions.
Instructional materials are needed to convey ideas to the children to enhance their understanding). Instructional materials are the basic components in teaching at all levels of education, especially higher education. They help the students to understand what is being taught when they see and handle the object itself. The materials resources provide opportunities for students to broaden and deepen their knowledge by providing a variety of firsthand, developmentally appropriate experiences and by helping students acquire symbolic knowledge through representing their experiences. A visual presentation of an idea or a concept using pictures, charts and models helps the students to develop mental images of the object that the lecturer is talking about. Material resource management has a great role for the achievement of educational goals by providing quality service and optimizing profitability through effective and efficient utilization of it. Effective and efficient materials functions contribute to the improvement of performance, leads to a significant reduction in the total materials cost, and helps to enhance the profitability of schools.
MANAGEMRNT OF MATERIAL RESOURCES
The material management concept is based on the potential advantages to be obtained from controlling the flow of materials and goods from supplier through stores and production to dispatch. The overall control would thus embrace purchasing, stores, Inventory control, production planning, and physical distribution. Material resource management in schools is a specific activity of school administration to achieve positive end results. The material resources in the higher education are the instructional materials such as writing materials, the tables, chairs, boards, books, indoor and outdoor games, the classrooms, the play field and other infrastructural facilities in the school. Material resources management in higher education involves a coordinated effort to effectively manage the available material resources in the school to promote learning through careful planning, organizing, controlling and evaluation of available material resources in the school. The application of appropriate management techniques in material resource management would assist in taking care of all available facilities. In other words, facilities which might have suffered neglect as a result of carelessness, ignorance, lack of commitment and lack of resources for management of the preschool teachers would be pruned to damage. Also, material resources which are well managed are likely to be durable. This will save us the cost of replacement within a short period of procurement. In addition, there would be safety from danger, disaster and theft when material resources in schools are well managed; key concepts in material resource management in schools include provision, utilization, maintenance and improvement of educational facilities and material resources. It is important to achieve organizational goal with acquisition and utilization of the right quality and quantity material resource used to deliver service. Material resource management is common to all types of organization. It is basic, because no organization can operate or survive without it. Thus, the success or failure of any organization depends on the material resource management and utilization. Material resource management is said to be that, process of management, which coordinated, supervises and excites the tasks associated with the flow of materials to, through and out of an organization in an integrated fashion
Academic performance/achievement refers to performance outcomes in intellectual domains taught at school, college, and university. As an indicator of intellectual education, academic achievement is the most important prerequisite for individual and societal prosperity. Academic achievement or academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.
MATERIAL RESOURCE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
The success of teaching and learning has been linked to availability of resources and that to support poorly performing schools, educational authorities must increase student levels and competencies by use of these resources for students to be ready for National Assessments. This can be done through instructional material development and allocation of resources. Resources ranging from textbooks to library books to websites, a variety of resources are available to help teachers meet the needs and pique the interest of their learners. This study focused on material resources (books, charts, computers, projectors, chemicals etc.) and physical facilities (libraries and laboratories) only. The Teaching/Learning resources may be in form of text, audio or audio-visual. There are also several instructional materials such as the chalkboard, books and periodicals, wall sheets, charts, maps, atlases and globes, media such as specimens — both living and preserved artefacts, models and puzzles. These resources made teaching and learning easier thus upping students’ academic outcomes. There is a positive correlation between the availability of textbooks and students’ learning outcomes. The consequence of not using these resources, as summed up by the researcher, led to students with good grades from primary school level receding in academic achievement in secondary school resulting to academic underachievement