Street hawking: girl child education and academic achievement

5 min readJun 5, 2021


Street hawking is one of the fastest growing events in Nigeria; in every street, there are children both boys and girls hawking just to make a living. Street hawking started as a result of poor socio economic status or background of parents; it could also be the issue of child trafficking or death of one’s parents. But from the findings from most undergraduate projects, street hawking tend to have a correlation with the socio-economic status of parents or guidance.

Street hawking

Street hawking is seen as a form of child labor that is caused by greed- the quest to get riches propels young boys and girls into doing a lot of things they are not supposed to do all in the pursuit of livelihood instead of employing their youthful strength on farming to produce enough food for the family. Street hawking is also exposed to a lot of risk and dangers, like in most city centers, traders could easily be knocked down by moving vehicles. Beside, street hawking has denied many children of school despite their ripe age of going to school. Teenage pregnancy is very common among street hawkers in terms of girl-child; teenage girls who hawk are gradually introduced to some anti-social vices; street hawking among young school students have psychologically imposed other problems, like sex networking behavior, juvenile delinquent behavior, which takes most of the student school time that necessitated the poor academic performance and drop-out syndrome noticed among young school students. The children who work suffer from fatigue, irregular attendance at school, lack of comprehension and motivation, improper socialization, exposure to risk of sexual abuse and high likelihood of being involved in crime. During hawking, children reached the most interior part of every street in urban setting thereby exposing them to dangers. She further went on to say that the consequences street hawking has on the family and society are that this children that hawk may have dubious character especially the boys as they come in contact with other children or adult with questionable characters in areas like motor parks, stadiums and in uncompleted buildings in the town. Sexually transmitted diseases are on the increase as these teenage hawkers want to be on the reigning fashion will embark into prostitution in other to make money. As they engage in this pre-marital sex, they count all on their gains without counting on the after effect. As these children who are still growing continue to carry goods on their head though the day and some of these loads may be too heavy for their ability, this can affect their growth which could result to stuntedness.

Girl child education

Girl child education is an act of training the female folks, intellectually, morally and physically, so that they can fit into the present day society. Education is the most valuable possession and the best legacy any parent can give to his or her daughter. Girl child education is that education given to female children at different stages and ways it is the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities to become effective participants of a given society group. Girl child education is the process that brings about well esteem, which helps in promoting participants that reflects in the society at large. Girl child education is the development of skills, knowledge, ability and character by the female child through teaching, study or experience in a formal place of acquiring knowledge. Girl child education as the gradual acquisition of what is worthwhile from birth till death by the female children; therefore, girl child education in a nutshell is the skills, knowledge and values acquired both informal and non formal ways by the female folks that enables them contribute meaningfully to the development of the society at large.

Academic achievement

Academic achievement is often referred and debated in educational policies and discourses. A deep and empirically tested knowledge about the factors that lay on the basis of school learning processes and which impact its development, but mainly about the learning processes difficulties. Both national and international researchers talk about academic achievement but also about educational attainment, giving to these expressions different meanings. Academic achievement is often linked with successful student’s individual capacities and abilities and is defined as the student’s school results, i.e., a student who being in the school system, public or private, with the convenient age, finishes a high school degree or equivalent, successfully, without neither interruptions nor failings”. Educational attainment is a wider concept when compared with academic achievement, as it also embraces other complex variables that are linked with the process of progressing through all schooling levels. Through a literature review, several factors contributing to academic achievement and educational attainment were identified. Collaborative work between qualified full time teacher librarians and curriculum teachers also impact students’ literacy, learning and problem solving. The work developed by school librarians could be an important predictor of students’ academic achievement and / or educational attainment as they can provide access to information, instruct students on information literacy competencies and build a stronger relationship with the whole educational community.

Street Hawking, Girl Child Education And Academic Achievement

Street hawking has a negative effect on the level of education attained, school attendance, school grades, literacy, and overall human capital formation. It is also found to results in low school enrolment with developmental and performance implications. In Africa, and particularly in rural Nigeria, it has been observed that child labourers generally have lower school attendance. When will the children have time to go school when they are busy making money for their parents are guardian who sent them out to the street? In fact, attending school is history for most street children as their parent or guardian are only interested in the money they make. Furthermore, those that are opportune to attend schools lose concentration. During school hours, they sleep in the classroom due to exhaustion and after school hours, they take to the street to engage in their trade. This results in poor grades and lack of interest in furthering their education.


Street hawking is highly detrimental to children’s physical, mental, psychological and social development which cannot be over looked. However, in Nigeria, it appears that child development is grossly abused through the increasing display of hawking in almost all the streets in Nigerian towns. In fact, the proportion of hawking and its attendant consequences has uncontrollably assumed an alarming stage as children between 6–15 years are seen everywhere in the cities hawking wares