School Climate, Self-Efficacy And Students Performance In Colleges

4 min readApr 15, 2024

The climate of the study setting, i.e., the classroom climate, is comprised of the atmosphere among the teacher staff, between the teacher and the management, and between the teachers and students, and it serves as the academic environment of the learning process. It constitutes an important part of the school’s values.

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Classroom climate changes form according to the student-teacher dynamics and is affected by demography, prejudices, general views on different topics, etc.. Moreover, the climate is also affected by the nationalities, ethnicities, and faiths of both teachers and students. Classroom climate includes the intellectual, social, emotional, and physical environment of the students.


School climate is one of the important factors that determine the success or failure of educational management. A good or conducive school climate can provide support or encouragement to the school principals, teachers, staffs and students to perform various activities according to their respective duties and functions. Climate is the quality of the environment (physical and non-physical) that is perceived and experienced continuously by every personal organization that directly determine and influence the behavior of various daily activities. It is also argued that the term ‘climate’ in an organization is like as the personality in humans that directly affect behavior in various activities. The school climate is one of the factors that distinguishes an organization from others. When the analogy is applied to schools, the school climate is the personality of a school that directly affects the behavior of individuals in the school (principals, teachers, staffs and students), and at the same time as a factor differentiating between a school and another school. The above analogy is reasonable because every educational institution or school has certain characteristics that may not be the same as other school features, although the physical completeness of facilities and infrastructure, the shape and architecture of the school are the same as other schools. This is because the characteristics of a school is determined by the climate of the school.


Self-efficacy is the extent or quality of one’s belief in one’s own skill to complete responsibilities and reach aims. Psychologists have studied self-efficacy from several perspectives, noting different ways in the improvement of self-efficacy; the elements of self-efficacy, and lack thereof, in many different settings; communications between self-concept and self-efficacy; and behaviors of attribution that contribute to or detract from self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is defined as a person’s judgment of his or her own abilities to compose and execute the tasks to achieve optimal performance. High self-efficacy is related to a number of social, positive physical and psychological performances. A longitudinal study of adolescents, reported lower levels of unhappiness and misbehavior with positively correlated emotional self-efficacy. Another study on low self-efficacy in students and patients stated severity of social anxiety and associated social Weakening. Hence, efforts are being made to create organized activities within the core curriculum, which can improve an individual’s academic behavior and performance. But, these programs with engrossed objectives have resulted in development of the student’s performance, but not behavior.


Academic achievement is considered to be equal to academic performance, and the common measure of academic achievement of college students is GPA (credit point average), which can be accurately calculated from the marks of each course to measure students’ academic achievement. “Academic” means the result of school work. For example, test scores. When “achievement” is used as a noun, it refers to the results obtained in a career. Academic achievement is considered to include not only intelligence and practical ability, but also the mastery of knowledge of human society and nature, in addition to the examination of comprehensive learning ability, and responsibility consciousness. Academic achievement includes the emotional development of students in addition to their own cognitive and practical abilities. It is easy to see that there is a wealth of research on the concept of academic achievement in Nigeria and abroad, but the most commonly accepted one is that proposed by the National Leadership Council for Liberal Education and America’s Promise, which states that academic achievement of college students is not equal to the admission rate and the percentage of those who can earn a degree, but more important: whether students have acquired the essential knowledge and ability to face work and life


Academic self-efficacy is the variable bridging the gap between the organisational-level school climate and the individual-level academic achievement variables. For the purposes of this study, we adopted a definition of school climate as students’ subjective perceptions of the school environment (physical and social), with emphasis on interpersonal relations (among all parties involved in school life), violence and safety (since this is a major issue in recent years in assessing school environments) and sense of belonging in the school community. We did not include other aspects that may also be associated with school climate (e.g., academic aspects, organisational politics) because they may also be considered outcomes of the above factors. Students’ own subjective perceptions of their ability to perform a range of academic tasks associated with academic success. This concept is often shaped by personal experience, feedback received from relevant others, and personal judgement rooted in culture and parental messages. In other words, environmental and social characteristics (that could be at least partly described through the concept of school climate) may shape academic self-efficacy. Therefore, we suggest that within the context of schools, school climate describes various social and environmental factors that shape ongoing experiences (success or failure, satisfaction or frustration around learning, etc.) that may in turn shape individual students’ academic self-efficacy. On the other hand, there is ample evidence suggesting that academic self-efficacy is positively associated with academic achievement and achievement-related outcomes in a wide range of settings